||Due to the convergence of several strands of scientific and technological progress we are witnessing the emergence of unprecedented opportunities for the creation of a knowledge driven society. Indeed, databases are accruing large amounts of complex multimedia documents, networks allow fast and almost ubiquitous access to an abundance of resources and processors have the computational power to perform sophisticated and demanding algorithms. However, progress is hampered by the sheer amount and diversity of the available data. As a consequence, access can only be efficient if based directly on content and semantics, the extraction and indexing of which is only feasible if achieved automatically. Given the above, we feel that there is both a need and an opportunity to systematically incorporate machine learning into an integrated approach to multimedia data mining. Indeed, enriching multimedia databases with additional layers of automatically generated semantic metadata as well as with artificial intelligence to reason about these (meta)data, is the only conceivable way that we will be able to mine for complex content, and it is at this level that MUSCLE will focus its main effort. Realising this vision will require breakthrough progress to alleviate a number of key bottlenecks along the path from data to understanding.